Double decker bus
Материал из ЗапоВики
Статья знакомит с основными фактами из истории появления двухэтажного лондонского автобуса, известного как даблдекер. Материал статьи может быть использован для проведения уроков в старших классах по темам 'Travelling', 'Transportation' или 'London'.
Язык статьи - английский''
A double-decker bus is a bus that has two storeys or 'decks'. Double-decker buses are in common use throughout the United Kingdom and in other countries. This type of bus is more common in outer touring. The red double-decker buses in London have become the national symbol of London and the majority of buses in London are double-deckers.
The introduction date of the very first double-decker bus seems to open to some debate. Generally what is agreed upon is that commercial buses were widely introduced in 1820's. They were horse drawn. It was a vehicle with a clerestory roof with built in upper seats running the length of the bus.
These early buses were called 'Omnibuses' and ran in France and England. Such open top double-decker horse drawn buses were not initially popular, and it took nearly 10 years when in 1852 was introduced a much larger double-decker with enough space for 42 passengers and needed pulling by three horses.
The last ever horse drawn bus in London ceased operating on 4th of August 1914, but continued in more rural areas in the UK until 1932.
The first motorised double-decker was introduced in 1923 and was the first to feature a full covered top deck.
The next major development was the introduction of the Routemaster London Bus, first built in 1954. The Routemaster in bright red became one of the iconic sights to see in London and is well known worldwide.
Double-decker bus models
The B-Type was one of the first reliable motorised mass produced buses. This type of bus helped spell the end for the horse drawn bus. It could transport 16 passengers inside and 18 on the top deck. The bus was constructed of a wooden frame, steel wheels, and a chain driven gearbox.
The K-Type was introduced just after the second World War had ended, with soldiers returning to London and the population expanding rapidly. It was also the time that the first bus stops were introduced, with buses previously only stopping at the passengers request. Later they could carry 46 passengers, the driver sat to the side to the engine at the front, out in the open himself.
The S-Type bus was introduced around 1920. It was larger, could carry 56 passengers, making it popular on the busier routes, and more passengers per bus made tickets cheaper.
The NS-Type bus was first introduced in 1923. It was lowered so getting on and off was easier for the passengers. Also this bus had covered top deck and air inflated pneumatic tyres giving a much more comfortable ride.
The STL-Type bus was introduced in 1932 and was considered the first really modern London double-decker bus. It was mainly used in London because of rapidly expanding routes required for increasing population.
The RT-Type bus was the predecessor of the iconic Routemaster model. This bus had a separate ladder chassis and coach built body. The RT became the main London bus used in the late 1940's and 1950's until it was replaced by the lighter and more capacious Routemaster.
The Iconic Routemaster bus was first designed in the 1950's. It was an innovative lightweight body, independent front suspension and fully automatic gearbox. The Routemaster buses ran in London until 2005, when they were finally retired from service on the 8th December and remains on two Heritage routes in central London.
Despite the retirement of the original version, the Routemaster has retained iconic status, and in the late 2000's work began on an updated version which entered service in February 2012.
The New Bus for London and colloquially as the New Routemaster or Boris Bus, is a 21st century replacement of the iconic Routemaster as a bus specifically for use in London. It features the 'hop on/hop off' rear open platform of the original Routemaster, but meets the requirements for modern buses.
London's double-decker red buses are world famous. The city has nearly 1,000 bus routes and buses of many other types and colours also travel on them. You must buy a ticket before boarding the buses. There are ticket machines at most bus stops. Bus routes are identified by numbers and sometimes letters. One way of seeing London's major sights is on an open top double-decker bus. Tickets are valid for 24 hours and allow unlimited 'hop on/hop off' travel.